Ibimenyetso by’umubumbe wa mbere wavumbuwe hanze ya galaxy yacu

Ibidukikije

Abahanga mu by’inyenyeri n’imibumbe babonye ibimenyetso by’igishobora kuba umubumbe wa mbere uvumbuwe hanze y’urujeje (galaxy) rwacu.

Hafi imibumbe 5,000 iri hanze y’iyi isanzwe igaragiye inyenyeri y’izuba, niyo imaze kuboneka kugeza ubu, ariko yose iri mu rujeje rwacu rwitwa Inzira Nyamata (Milky Way galaxy).

Ibimenyetso by’umubumbe wabonywe na Telescope ya NASA yitwa Chandra X-Ray biri mu rujeje rwitwa Messier 51.

Uru ruri mu ntera ikabakaba imyaka y’urumuri miliyoni 28 uvuye ku nzira Nyamata, (umwaka umwe w’urumuri ungana na kilometero tiriyari 9.5).

Ibyabonywe byavuye ku kwitegereza ikitwa X-ray binary – inyenyeri za neutron zisanzwe zikwega gas ziyivana ku nyenyeri bigendana

Ibi byabonywe kuko mu rugendo iyo umubumbe uciye imbere y’inyenyeri imurika uzibira rumwe mu rumuri rw’iyo nyenyeri bigatera umwijima uhita ubonwa n’indebakure (telescopes).

Ubu buryo rusange bwo kureba nibwo bwakoreshejwe mu kubona indi mibumbe ibihumbi iri hanze y’isanzwe igaragiye izuba, ariko mu rujeje rwacu.

Dr Rosanne Di Stefano na bagenzi be bashakishije iriya myijima, bitegereje urumuri rwa X-ray ruva ku bwoko bw’ikitwa X-ray bright binary – ihuriro ry’inyenyeri zimurika cyane.

Ibi bintu bigizwe n’inyenyeri ya neutron cyangwa umwobo w’umukara ukurura gas uyikura ku nyenyeri bigendana.

Kubera ko ako gace kaba gatanga urumuri rwa X-rays rutoya, umubumbe uciye imbere yaho ushobora guhita uzibira igice cyangwa rwa rumuri rwa X-rays rwose, bigatuma icyo kintu kirufunze kiboneka.

Abagize iryo tsinda bakoresheje ubwo buhanga mu kubona uwo mubumbe muri ‘binary system’ bahise bita M51-ULS-1.

Dr Di Stefano wo muri Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics muri Cambridge ya Amerika, yabwiye BBC ati:

“Ubu buryo twakoze kandi tugakoresha nibwo bwonyine bushobora kwifashishwa mu kuvumbura ‘systems’ z’imibumbe mu zindi njeje (galaxies).

Guhiga imibumbe ahazaza

Ako gace ka binary karimo umwobo w’umukara cyangwa inyenyeri ya neutron izunguruka inyenyeri bituranye ifite ubunini buruta inshuro 20 ubw’izuba ryacu. Inyenyeri ya neutron ni igisigazwa cy’ikiba cyarahoze ari inyenyeri ya rutura.

Urwo rugendo rw’uwo mubumbe rwamaze hafi amasaha atatu, aho rwatumye urumuri rwa X-ray ruzima kugera kuri zeru.

Hashingiwe kuri ibi no ku yandi makuru, abo bahanga babona ko uwo mubumbe ushobora kuba ufite ubunini nk’ubwa Saturn, ukazenguruka ya nyenyeri ya neutron inshuro hafi ebyiri igihe Saturn ikoresha ku zuba.

Dr Di Stefano avuga ko ubundi buryo bwatanze umusaruro mu kubona imibumbe itagaragiye izuba ariko iri mu rujeje rwacu rw’Inzira Nyamata, bwananiwe kugira icyo bugeraho ku zindi njeje.

Igice kimwe kubera ko intera nini cyane irimo hagati igabanya ingano y’urumuri rugera ku ndebakure, bigasobanura ko ibintu byinshi biba birunze mu gice gitoya (ubirebeye ku Isi), bityo bikagorana gutandukanya inyenyeri n’iyindi.

Messier 51 yitwa kandi urujeje rwa Whirlpool Galaxy kubera imiterere yarwo y’inziga z’ibice

Aba bashakashatsi bemera ko hari andi makuru agikenewe kugira ngo hemezwe neza ibyo babonye.

Kimwe mu ngorane ni uko uyu mubumbe ukekwa babonye uzenguruka ahantu hanini kuburyo udashobora guca imbere y’aho hantu nanone mu myaka 70, bityo amahirwe yo kongera kuwureba vuba aha ni macye.

Ikindi bakeka ko gishoboka ni uko kuriya kwijima gushobora kuba kwaratewe n’igicu cya gas n’umukungugu byanyuze imbere y’urumuri rwa X-ray.

Gusa, bavuga ko ibi byo amahirwe yabyo ari macye cyane, kuko ibiranga ibyo babonye bidahuye n’ibisanzwe biranga igicu cya gas.

Julia Berndtsson wo muri Princeton University i New Jersey uri muri aba bashakashatsi ati: “Turabizi ko turi kuvuga ibintu bidasanzwe kandi bikomeye, rero twiteze ko n’abandi bahanga bazabisuzuma bitonze.

“Twibaza ko dufite ingingo ikomeye, kandi ubu nibwo buryo siyansi ikoramo.”

Dr Di Stephano avuga ko amoko mashya y’indebakure (telescopes) ashobora kutabasha kureba indi mibumbe mu mwijima, bityo kureba hakoreshejwe X-ray bishobora gukomeza gushingirwaho mu gushakisha imibumbe mishya mu zindi njeje.

Gusa, avuga ko uburyo buzwi nka microlensing bushobora gutanga ikizere mu kubona n’imibumbe iri hanze y’injeje.

Ubushakashatsi bw’aba bahanga bwatangajwe muri journal Nature Astronomy.

Ibibonwa nabo bikomeza kwerekana itandukaniro rinini ry’ibyo abantu bamwe bemera ko byaremwe naho abandi ko bitaremwe ahubwo byahozeho iteka.

 

 

Src: BBC

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